Theories

Viktor Lowenfeld

he born in Austria 1903 and he died in United State 1960.He proposed 5 stages of creative and mental growth.

  • scribble (2-4 years)

Has 4 stages from this:
a) Disordered= the child has little or no control are moto activity
b) Longitudinal= create awareness and enjoyment of kinesthetic movement.
c) Circular =demonstrate the ability to do move complex form.
d) Naming= required the child to tell story about the scribble ( change from kinesthetic thinking to imaginative thinking.)

  • The preschematic (4-6 years)

-The child can do circular image with line that can be a human or animal figures.
-The drawing shows the child obtain the subject. The used of color is more emotional than logical.

  • Schematic( 6-9 years)

-The child can recognized the concept of space.
-Object in the drawing is recognizable in the drawing by the child. They know what is up and what is down.
– Exaggeration between figures is used to express feeling (humans taller than house).

  • Dawning Realism(9-11 years)

-Also known as going age.
-Focus on developing an expertise in art. They will make certain aspects of piece extremely detailed.
-Children at this stage have the ability to think logically.

  • The Pseudorealistic Stage(11-13 years)

-At first, the child’s work is inspired by visual stimuli.
-second, based on subjective experience.( emphasize emotional relationship to external world because it relates them
-view art as a spontaneous activity.

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Gestalt-Psychology-

Gestalt Theory

Also known as Law of Simplicity and in this theory has a principle perception:

  • Proximity= when stimuli are closed to each other the child can group them and recognized as part same object.

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  • Similarity= share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, value will belong together.

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  • Good continuation= when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object.

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  • Closure= the brain tend to perceive form and figure even though some part is hidden or totally absent.

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  • Figured ground= Gestalt grouping law the states that are perceived as a unified group and role of symmetry in determining figure ground perception.

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Learning Theories

Pavlov Classical Conditioning

-Classical conditioning combined unconditional  stimulus with unconditional response. Meanwhile conditional stimulus lead to conditional response.Based on experiment, it shows that when desirable stimulus is given to the dog,unconditional response it shown. Vise versa if undesirable stimulus is given, unconditioned response has appeared after it go through same practice.pav-classicalconditioning

Thorndike the law of effect

-Desirable behavior will be repeated many time but undesirable  want will not continued. If desirable behavior has achieved  by student the teacher will provide them reinforcement. If not punishment will gained by them.
-This reinforcement will strengthen behavior and punishment will decreases the desirable behavior.

Skinner operant conditioning

-Skinner proposed that behaviorism looked true external instead of looking at internal and motivation. In this theory they got both positive and negative reinforcement as well as punishment.
imagesReinforcement >  +  = get a reward
>  –  = removal something

Punishment     >  +   = when teacher showed unpleasant body language it will  affect the student to not ask the question again
>  –   = a naughty student will be punish by a teacher

 

Watson behaviorism

According to Watson, only observable behavior can be accepted by the looked external not internal.
f-when student used to do something frequently, they will be expert in doing something and it also safe their time. They also will achieve speed once they are used to do something oftenly.